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Southern Voices climate networks are using the Joint Priniplces for Adaptation to promote the inclusion of adaptation issues in the INDC’s, - the national commitments each country will submit ahead of the COP21 in Paris. 

The abbreviation signifies Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – and the INDC indicate the scale of efforts by each country to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the kind and scale of resilient adaptive actions vulnerable countries will take. The INDC is part of the negotiation process of a new global accord to be signed within the framework of the COP21 November 30 – December 11 in Paris.
 
Southern Voices climate networks are promoting the inclusion of adaptation issues in the INDC’s, based on the Joint Principles for Adaptation whenever possible. Below we share highlights from these processes from Vietnam, Ghana, El Salvador and Cambodia.
 
Vietnam: Prioritizing the most vulnerable as a co-benefit
Sustainability must be combined with a clear pro-poor focus for action on climate change in order to be successful - stated the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) in its recommendations on Vietnams draft INDC.
 
The civil society network has been calling on the Government to adopt a co-benefit perspective, exploiting synergies between adaptation and mitigation; when addressing climate change by reducing GHG emissions, the INDC should also “prioritize the needs of vulnerable people in Vietnam”.
 
CCWG found it “remarkable that the Vietnamese Government in their draft INDC emphasizes social security in the face of climate change, including community based disaster-risk reduction, ecosystem-based adaptation, poverty reduction livelihood support etc”., and CCWG invited the government “to go even further by using INDCs to create a constructive feedback loop between national and international decision-making on climate change”.
 
The Southern Voices JPA has been used to analyze Vietnams draft INDC, and CCWG’s comments on the INDC referred to both the JPA and the Cancun Agreement when calling on the government to follow the principles of transparency and the participatory nature of adaptation planning.
 
A national participatory process is key, and civil society, private sector, think tanks and other stakeholders must be involved in following up on the INDC after COP21 in Paris. At COP 21, CCWG is partnering with the government on a Vietnamese Pavillion.
 
Vietnam submitted its INDC on 29 September.
 
Ghana: Pushing for the INDC “Made in Ghana”
In Ghana, ABANTU has been one of the driving forces in encouraging the government to prepare an INDC. In collaboration with other civil society actors, ABANTU organized a National Forum on INDCs in Accra in August.
 
During the Forum, Mr. Dery, from Ghanas Ministry of Environment explained that the Government was delayed as they resisted attempts by development partners to engage external consultants in preparing the INDCs: “We are not going to give our watches to anybody to look at it and tell us our time. The INDCs that are being prepared are prepared by Ghanaians, for Ghanaians and would be implemented by Ghanaians”, stated Mr. Dery.
 
In spite of the delay, Ghana submitted its INDC on 23 September. The Contributions focus on four strategic areas – agriculture and food security; climate resilient strategic infrastructure; equitable social development; and sustainable natural resource management. The areas cover mitigation, adaptation and separate actions, which Ghana can manage without external support, and conditional actions which will require external finance.
 
In the words of Dr. Rose Mensah-Kutin "The role of civil society organizations cannot be under-played because all over the world when there has been concrete change; change that has actually benefited citizens, it has been from the push and campaign of civil society,”. 
 
El Salvador: Calling for multiple stakeholders to take action
The Salvadoran Roundtable on Climate Change has been active in urging Salvadoran government stakeholders to act on climate change, and to submit an INDC. Earlier this year, the Roundtable (La Mesa de Cambio Climático de El Salvador) launched an international call for non-governmental actors to actively support and promote the INDC process towards their governments. This was due to concerns that many governments in developing countries, including El Salvador, did not give sufficient priority to preparation of an INDC ahead of COP21. 
 
The text calls on NGOs and other stakeholders “to actively address and support the preparation of the contributions of our States” in order to promote social legitimization of a new climate agreement in 2015.
 
It has a balanced focus on mitigation and adaptation, and in relation to Adaptation and Vulnerability, the statement calls for all stakeholders “...to promote and ensure that the level of ambition of the INDC is justified in the light of each country vulnerability conditions, including for that purpose a component on adaptation policies and measures, and as a priority those embodied in the National Adaptation Plans or sub-national adaptation plans.”
 
By late September, the statement has been signed by 78 supporters.
 
In an open letter, based on the same arguments, the Roundtable has also urged ministers of the Central American Commission on Environment and Development (CCAD) to contribute to the rising level of commitment and ambition of the new Global Agreement. 
 
Cambodia: National workshop to put INDC on the agenda
SVA-partner networks in Cambodia organised a workshop in June on INDC’s and National Adaptation Plans. The details of the workshop has already been covered in the article "Cambodia: CSOs engage government on INDC preparations". 
In a joint statement by CCCN and NGO-Forum on Cambodia, the two organizations propose areas of priority in relation to adaptation and mitigation.
 
 
After the workshop, CCCN and NGO-Forum on Cambodia on Cambodia have had several meetings with CSOs, Embassies and the Ministry of Environment, and sent their inputs in writing. 60-70% of the CSO inputs have been reflected in the draft INDC, according to the NGO-Forum. 
 
The official deadline for submitting INDCs are October 1st and the pledges are expected to cover more than 90 percent of global emissions.
 
While the main focus of the INDCs is the level of ambition in terms of GHG reductions, guidance for developing countries from different sources has encouraged them to state their long-term goals and vision on the role of adaptation in sustainable development planning, including action-based contributions.

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